Tuesday, May 03, 2016

Ruminating on User Journey Maps

Creating user journey maps is an integral part of any UX or design thinking process. There are many ways in which you can create a user journey map. The links below would serve as guidance on the different approaches one can take to illustrate customer journey maps.


I liked the sample journey maps created by Lego and Starbucks.

  • Before creating a user journey map, you have to define personas - based on customer segmentation and personality types. 
  • Then identify the customer experience journeys that you want to illustrate for each persona - e.g. transactional process of buying a car insurance, lifetime journey for an insurance customer, etc. 
  • Each journey is then broken down into various stages or phases that the customer goes through.
  • For each step, identify the customer emotions (e.g. positive, negative, neutral) and think on improving the customer experience - making it a 'wow' moment. 

Joyce also has a great presentation on SlideShare that shows many examples of customer journey maps and how they can be used to create superior customer experiences. My personal favourite was the below example that was a simple yet powerful tool to create wow moments for your customers.

There is another great blog post by ThoughWorks on facilitating collaborative design workshops.

Saturday, April 09, 2016

TeamViewer for screencasting android phones to the desktop

We were using Android screencast through the ADB and USB connectivity. But a colleague of mine recently told me that TeamViewer is another easy alternative for screencasting your android phone.

I had used TeamViewer in the past, but gradually shifted to WebEx and Join-me for my personal use. I checked out TeamViewer on Android and screen-casted it on my mac and it ran smoothly. Could observe a lag only in viewing videos.

Jotting down the steps to setup Android screencast using TeamViewer.

  1. Install TeamViewer QuickSupport on your Android Phone -https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.teamviewer.quicksupport.market&hl=e
  2. Install TeamViewer on your mac machine -  https://www.teamviewer.com/hi/download/mac.aspx
Run the Android app and it would show you a secret number that should be passed on out-of-band to the other computer to connect to the Android phone. And voila ! - you are ready to screencast..

Monday, March 28, 2016

Ruminating on Descriptive, Preventive and Prescriptive Analytics

Michael Wu had made the 3 types of analytics famous - Descriptive, Predictive and Prescriptive.
A good article on this is available on InformationWeek here. Jotting down some snippets from the article and the Wikipedia page.

"The purpose of descriptive analytics is to summarize what happened. Descriptive analytics looks at past performance and understands that performance by mining historical data to look for the reasons behind past success or failure. Most management reporting - such as sales, marketing, operations, and finance - uses this type of post-mortem analysis.

Predictive analytics utilizes a variety of statistical modeling, data mining, and machine learning techniques to study recent and historical data, thereby allowing analysts to make predictions about the future. Predictive analytics answers the question what will happen. 
In the most general cases of predictive analytics, "you basically take data that you have; to predict data you don't have." For e.g. predicting the sentiment from social data. 

Prescriptive analytics goes beyond descriptive and predictive models by recommending one or more courses of action -- and showing the likely outcome of each decision."

Friday, March 25, 2016

Ruminating on Design Thinking

Design Thinking is a philosophy or a set of principles that can be applied to any creative endeavor. User Experience SMEs have been using similar methodologies for UX design for decades.

Design thinking also embraces many of AGILE concepts such as iterative prototyping, closer end-user engagement to get a first-hand experience of the customer business context - i.e. more human-centric or customer-centric, fail-fast culture.

Jotting down a few video links for folks who want to learn about Design Thinking.

https://hbr.org/2008/06/design-thinking  -  A good video at the bottom of the article.

http://dschool.stanford.edu/dgift/#crash-course-video  - A free video crash course on design thinking.



Friday, February 26, 2016

Ruminating on IoT revolutionizing the supply chain

Smart sensors (IoT) are pushing the frontiers of supply chain technology. By utilizing sophisticated sensors, Logistics Providers can enable greater visibility into their supply chains.

Smart sensors today can measure a variety of environmental variables such as GPS coordinates, temperature, light sensitivity, humidity, pressure, and shock events. These sensors then wirelessly transmit the data to the enterprise systems in real-time. For e.g. SenseAware provides smart sensors that can be dropped into any package and enable tracking of all these environmental variables throughout the shipment journey. Roambee provides intelligent sensors called 'bees' to monitor shipments.

Given below are some of the business use-cases where smart sensors can add value to the supply chain.

  1. Cold Chain: A lot of shipments need tight temperature controls during the entire journey - e.g. bio-medicines, insulin, blood, live organs, vaccines, perishable food items, etc. By using temperature sensors, organizations can monitor the temperature excursions and take corrective action like re-icing the shipment, etc. 
  2. Improve security of high-value products: By utilizing sensors, we can now track the location of each shipment in real-time and raise alerts if a shipment has deviated from its planned route. Most sensor-based platforms enable users to define geofences and trigger alerts if the shipment is moved outside of the geofence. This can be very useful for high-value products such as gems, jewelry, surgical items, etc. 
  3. Enable faster cash collection: In many industries, suppliers are unable to invoice their customers till they get confirmation of the shipment delivery. By leveraging 'light sensors', suppliers can be notified that their shipment has been opened and hence considered to be delivered. This would enable suppliers to raise quicker invoices and thus faster cash collections. 
  4. Reduce buffer inventory: Many manufacturing units maintain buffer inventory to avoid stock-out situations. Lack of information on inbound logistics (delivery dates) results in higher buffer inventory. By leveraging smart sensor-based logistics, manufacturing firms would have greater visibility into inbound goods delivery as they can track the location of shipments in real-time. This can result in tighter inventory controls and lower TCO. 
  5. Reduce insurance premiums: Over a period of time, all the data collected by sensors can be utilized by an insurance firm to reduce the premiums for customers who take tangible steps to ensure the safety and quality of the delivered goods. For e.g. If Pharma company A is doing a better job at maintaining tight temperature controls than Pharma company B, then it makes sense for the insurer to incentivize Pharma company A. 
  6. Avoid delivery penalties: Large retailers such as Walmart have stringent rules on shipment delivery times. It imposes a penalty if a shipment arrives earlier or later than its scheduled time-slot. By leveraging smart logistics, vendors can monitor their shipment delivery times and take corrective action. 

Thus, smart sensor-based logistics can provide business value across a range of industries. The combination of smart hardware sensors and scalable software platforms can help organizations build a new central nervous system for their supply chain.

Thursday, February 25, 2016

Ruminating on EMPI

EMPI (Enterprise Master Patient Index) is a consolidated hub of all patient related information that would act as a single source of truth.

Hospitals have various departmental systems such as lab systems, radiology systems, EMR systems and other Health Information systems that operate in isolation. Typically patient data is spread out across these disparate systems and it is challenging to have a 360-degree view of the patient.

Hence, hospitals create an EMPI hub that assigns a unique ID to each patient. EMPI systems use algorithms to match and link records across disparate systems. The algorithms also identify duplicate records and reduce the number of false negatives. The typical attributes used by the matching algorithms are first name, last name, DOB, sex, social security number, address and more. The matching algorithms (deterministic, probabilistic/fuzzy) must consider typos, misspellings, transpositions, aliases, etc.

Besides the internal attributes, many organizations also source data from external third parties (e.g. Equifax) that can be used for increasing the accuracy of the matching engine. This is helpful as people change addresses, phone numbers, etc. with time.

Many traditional MDM product vendors such as IBM, InfoR provide platforms to implement EMPI.
Few organizations have also started using NoSQL and other Big Data platforms for creating a customer hub as explained here.

Friday, February 12, 2016

Analysis of Healthcare spend in the US

The US department of Health has released interesting stats on the healthcare spend across various dimensions. The report is a bit old and available at http://archive.ahrq.gov/research/findings/factsheets/costs/expriach/

Some eye-opening snippets from the report are copied here -

  1. Five percent of the population accounts for almost half (49 percent) of total health care expenses.
  2. The top 5 chronic diseases are - Diabetes, Hypertension, Heart Disease, Asthma and Mood Disorders. Treatment for these diseases account for almost 50% of the total healthcare spend.
  3. 5% of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries accounted for 43 percent of total spending, with 25 percent accounting for 85 percent of all spending.
  4. The elderly and disabled, who constituted around 25 percent of the Medicaid population, accounted for about 70 percent of Medicaid spending.
  5. The five most expensive health conditions were heart disease, cancer, trauma, mental disorders, and pulmonary conditions

Wednesday, February 10, 2016

Ruminating on Usage based Insurance

Many Auto Insurance firms have started launching usage-based insurance (UBI) products - i.e. based on how much you drive (miles) and how you drive. These are called as PAYD (Pay as you drive) and PHYD (Pay how you drive) respectively.

Insurance firms typically ask their members to plug-in an OBD device onto their vehicles. The OBD device then syncs the data wirelessly to the backend platforms of the insurance firm.

Allstate's Drivewise program is an example of this. It was enlightening to know the various parameters that are captured by the device and transmitted back to the servers. The full list of parameters is available here - https://www.allstate.com/landingpages/drivewisedevice.aspx

Some of the parameters are:
  • GPS trail
  • VIN and Odometer readings
  • Hard Braking Events
  • High Speed Events
  • Acceleration Events
  • Vehicle Error Codes
  • A comprehensive trip report - seconds in acceleration, seconds in deceleration, miles driven in each speed band, constant speed miles, varying speed miles, etc. 
With the help of these parameters, an insurance firm can assign a 'Safe Driver' score for all their members and reward members for safe driving. There was another interesting parameter that could indicate if hypermiling took place :) 
Besides the OBD device, auto insurance firms need to invest in creating a scalable cloud platform to process this vast amount of OBD data. Technologies such as Big Data Analytics, CEP, scalable messaging and event propagation engines, next best action modules are integrated together to build such a scalable and modular UBI platform.

Friday, January 22, 2016

Combining NLP with Machine Learning

SAS has published an interesting article titled - 'Your personal data scientist'.  I have always been a fan of virtual assistants such as Siri, Google Now and depend on them for most of my day-to-day task management. We have also built some cool use-cases around using NLP for self-service.

The idea of building an NLP wrapper on top of your Analytics engine is a cool one and can have a plethora of use-cases. For e.g. A business decision maker wants to know the top 10 sales talent; the sales in a particular geography last quarter, etc.

We need to build an NLP front-end that can intelligently convert natural language text to queries that can be executed against the machine learning engine.

Netty at Apple Inc.

I was pleasantly surprised to learn that most of Apple's cloud services run on Netty.

Norman Maurer had posted an excellent presentation on how Netty is being used at Apple and how many of the extreme performance requirements were met.

There are more than 400 thousand instances of Netty at Apple; handling millions of requests/sec. Netty powers all popular cloud services such as iCloud, iTunes, Siri, Apple Maps, etc.

Tuesday, January 12, 2016

UX vs. UI

Found the following good articles that lay out the difference between UX and UI.


Snippet from the article -
"The intrigue is that a UX can exist and work very effectively having a poor UI. For example, you can have an application with a stunning design that is hairy to use (good UI, bad UX). You can also have an application that has a poor look and feel, but is very intuitive to use (poor UI, good UX)."

I have always been a fan of sketching and we often brainstorm on the whiteboard. The following link highlights the importance of sketching - http://uxmovement.com/wireframes/why-its-important-to-sketch-before-you-wireframe/

You can also download printer-friendly grid-based templates for mobile sketches - http://uxmovement.com/products/wireframe-sheets-sketch-your-user-interface-to-life/

Thursday, December 24, 2015

List of Prototyping tools

Found a good list of prototyping tools on cooper.com.

Liked the way they have compared the tools on various parameters :)

Saturday, December 12, 2015

PhoneGap vs. Cordova

Many folks are still confused on the distinction between PhoneGap and Apache Cordova. There are so many articles on the web that further blur our minds :)

I found this blog post on the Ionic site to be the most accurate comparison of PhoneGap vs Cordova.
Jotting down some snippets from the blog.

"PhoneGap is Cordova plus extra Adobe stuff. At first, the differences between Cordova and PhoneGap were minimal. But Adobe always had plans to build out a proprietary set of services around the PhoneGap ecosystem, and has started to execute on that plan with PhoneGap Build."

Building cool hybrid mobile apps - Lessons from Basecamp

Basecamp has successfully utilized hybrid techniques for building their iOS and Android apps. The following links are worth a perusal to understand the techniques they used.




PhoneGap on its blog has made an interesting distinction between two types of Hybrid applications -

  1. Web Hybrid: This is the default approach that PhoneGap takes. You package your apps as HMTL5/CSS3 and then run the app in a thin native web view container. All the UI controls are HTML or JavaScript controls.
  2. Native Hybrid: In this approach, you build a native app and use native controls for navigation, menus, etc. But most of the content pages are HTML views rendered in a web view. The HTML content can come from the local store or the server. 

Friday, December 11, 2015

Apple enforcing HTTPS connections using TLS v1.2

In iOS 9, Apple has implemented a new security feature called as ATS (App Transport Security), which is enabled by default.

So what is ATS? In simple words, ATS enforces all HTTP requests to be made on SSH - i.e. any API call your app makes to the backend servers must be on HTTPS. If you want to make an unsecured HTTP call, then you have to explicitly list down those exceptions in your Infoplist file.

ATS also enforces the latest protocol version of TLS - i.e. Transport Layer Security version 1.2. This can cause issues if your server is using HTTPS, but an older version of TLS. In such cases, you have two options - either upgrade your server to use the latest TLS protocol or add an exception to your app for these URLs.

More details on ATS can be found here

Thursday, December 10, 2015

Git vs GitHub vs GitHub Enterprise

A lot of folks get confused over the differences between Git and GitHub and use the words interchangeably. Also when folks talk about GitHub, it is assumed that it is only available on the public cloud and cannot be hosted in-premise.

Git is essentially a distributed version control system. It is called 'distributed' because we can use it locally and disconnected from the internet and then push our changes to another centralized repository (such as GitHub, Team Foundation Server, CodePlex, etc.) as and when required.
For a good comparison of centralized vs distributed source control systems, please read this blog post.

GitHub is a hosted service (public cloud) that can host your repositories and allows you to access your repositories via a web based interface. It is possible to use Git without GitHub, but only on a local machine. Hence in order to collaborate and work in a team, we have to use GitHub.
In the free plans of GitHub, we can create any number of public repositories, with unlimited collaborators. In the paid plans of GitHub, you can create private repositories.

GitHub Enterprise is the on-premises version of GitHub, which you can deploy and manage in your own, secure environment (private cloud).

Tuesday, December 08, 2015

Ruminating on the UX Design Process

Centerline has published a neat infographic illustrating the UX design process. While there are a  lot of UX related infographics on the net, I liked the simplicity and clear thought process of this one :)

When we create compelling user experiences for our customers, we follow a similar process.

  1. Gain a deeper understanding of the customer and the industry segment the customer operates in. Who are their end-customers? What is the market positioning of their product? 
  2. Based on customer segmentation, create personas and user journey maps. 
  3. Create a high level information architecture
  4. Create low fidelity prototypes (mockups) using Visio, PowerPoint, etc.
  5. After review, create high fidelity dynamic prototypes using tools such as iRise, Axure, etc. Work with Visual/Graphic Designers during this phase. 
  6. Once the application is developed, do a usability test using tools such as TechSmith Morae. Create a feedback loop for UX changes that gets incorporated in the next agile release. 
  7. Make sure that your UX team and Web/Mobile Analytics teams are working in tandem to resolve all UX concerns and improve the customer experience. 

Monday, December 07, 2015

Markdown and Pandoc

Over the past decade, the simple Markdown text formatting syntax has gained a lot of popularity. Many bloggers and web writers have shifted to using Markdown, though a few still use word processors or WYSIWYG editors.

A good introduction to Markdown can be found here - http://readwrite.com/2012/04/17/why-you-need-to-learn-markdown

John Gruber, the inventor or Markdown gives the below explanation for creating Markdown -

"The overriding design goal for Markdown’s formatting syntax is to make it as readable as possible. The idea is that a Markdown-formatted document should be publishable as-is, as plain text, without looking like it’s been marked up with tags or formatting instructions."

This is the reason that Markdown has become popular for web writers who publish their content on to the web or other digital channels.

Markdown text can be converted to HTML or many other formats (e.g. PDF, Word, etc.) using tools such as Pandoc. There are also online editors for Markdown such as http://dillinger.io/, that shows you the formatted HTML side-by-side. Blogging platforms such as Wordpress have also started supporting Markdown syntax. Even the Ghost blogging platform supports Markup.

But  there are limitations on what you can do in Markdown when it comes to complex formatting. Hence the format allows you to embed HTML code inline whenever you want some complex formatting.

It's important to understand that Markdown is good for creating content, but would not be a good fit to be used as a generic purpose web site creation tool . As John Gruber says in his philosophy:

"Markdown is not a replacement for HTML, or even close to it...The idea for Markdown is to make it easy to read, write, and edit prose."

Pandoc can also be used for reverse translation - i.e. to convert HTML, Word docx files to Markdown format. 

Ruminating on SSL and encrypted URLs

Recently, a colleague of mine asked an innocuous question that was quite interesting. We all knew that SSL protects the URL and hence it is not possible to snoop details out of the URL - for e..g GET params, resource path on server, etc.

But if the URL is encrypted by SSL, how does DNS work? How will the DNS server route the request to the right server?

The way it happens is as below:

  1. When a HTTP client (browser / API client) makes a request to a HTTPS URL, it only send the server name part of the URL to the DNS server. For e.g. if you are making a request to https://myserver.com/secret_path/secret_resource, then the HTTP client would only send 'myserver.com' to the DNS server for lookup. 
  2. The DNS server responds back with the actual IP address of the server. 
  3. The HTTP client then makes a call to the server using the IP address. What follows is the SSL handshake protocol and a secure connection is established with the server.
  4. Then the HTTP server makes a request for the actual resource on the secure pipe/tunnel. 

Quite simple actually, if you break down the steps :)

Whitepaper on APIs - Digital Glue in the new economy

Recently I coauthored a whitepaper on APIs and the important role they play in the digital economy.

Link - http://www.syntelinc.com/insights-and-resources/publications/api-management-platforms-digital-glue-api-economy

Saturday, December 05, 2015

Orchestrating Microservices using Event Driven Architecture (EDA) paradigms

If you follow the microservices architecture style, you would have a bunch of services running in their own independent process space.

But how do you orchestrate services for a given business workflow? For e.g. a business transaction that spans multiple calls to microservices.
Point to point integrations would result in 'Dependency Hell'. If each microservice calls the other microservice directly over HTTP API calls, then very soon we have a spaghetti of API dependencies.

One simple design pattern to resolve this is by using the EDA (Event Driven Architecture) paradigm. Each microservices does its job and then publishes an event. Other microservices subscribe to the event and act on it as necessary.

This pub/sub model results in loose coupling between the services and makes the system much more maintainable. A good blog-post covering this paradigm in more details is present here

Wednesday, December 02, 2015

Ruminating on the 'Infrastructure as Code' paradigm

Setup (installation and configuration) of servers and other infrastructure components is a tedious process.

In the olden days, process-oriented teams created meticulous documentation on 'how to setup a server' - typically in a word document with screenshots and step-by-step instructions.
Folks then tried to automate some tasks using scripts - e.g. unix shell scripts/bash etc.

But today, in a cloud-first world, setup of servers and deployment of applications need to be completely automated. The whole premise of 'Infrastructure-as-Code' is to write code in a high level language (e.g. Java, Python, Ruby) or a DSL (domain specific language) to automate the provisioning of infrastructure and managing configurations.

So this goes beyond just writing simple scripts. You utilize all the best practices of agile development projects - i.e. version control, unit testing, iterative development, etc. The whole revolution happening in DevOps acted as a catalyst in promoting the concept of 'programmable infrastructure'. In DevOps, the core concept of 'You built it, You run it' promotes closer collaboration between the development teams and IT ops team.

Popular tools such as Ansible, Kubernetes, Puppet, Chef, etc. can be used to automate your complete deployment cycle and help you achieve Continuous Delivery. 

List of Microservices resources

PaweĊ‚ Pacana has compiled a long list of 72 useful resources to learn about Microservices  :)

The link to the list of resources is here - http://blog.arkency.com/2014/07/microservices-72-resources/

It's important to understand that microservices is an architecture style and follows many of the best practices and principles of SOA. In fact, IMHO microservices is nothing but SOA done right! :)

Microservices is an architectural paradigm of building systems as a suite of independent services, each running in its own process space and communicating with each other using lightweight REST calls.

I found Martin Fowler's talk on Microservices an excellent source of information for beginners to learn about microservices.
The YouTube video is available here - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wgdBVIX9ifA

Tuesday, December 01, 2015

Weird laptop battery problems and ridiculous solutions

Laptops suffer from so many idiosyncratic battery problems and have their own ritual of try-n-test solutions that appear so weird !

Recently, I was facing a unique problem on my HP pro book 440. The charger was connected, but the battery was not charging. The status showed - "Plugged in, not charging". I tried multiple options to rectify this - by removing and plugging in the battery, by restarting the machine, but nothing worked.

The following steps posted on HP forum finally did the trick.

- While the computer in running, disconnect AC from the outlet
- Restart computer
- After loading, reconnect AC

Hope this helps someone in dire need :)

Wednesday, October 21, 2015

Classification of medical devices by FDA

In the US, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates any apparatus involved in diagnosing or treating disease.

While we were working on an IoT enabled Diabetes Management Solution, we learned that the FDA classifies all medical devices into 3 categories  - Class 1 / Class 2 & Class 3.

  • Class 1 devices are low risk devices and have minimum regulatory control. For e.g. dental floss, lancets, etc.  These devices must be listed in the FDA's medical device registry, but do not have a stringent approval process. 
  • Class 2 devices have higher risk and need stronger regulatory controls. For e.g. blood glucose meters, test strips, insulin pumps, etc. 
  • Class 3 devices have the highest risk and therefore have the highest level of regulatory control. For e.g. heart valves, continuous glucose monitors, artificial pancreas, etc. 

Monday, October 19, 2015

Digital in brick-n-mortar stores

While a lot of attention has been given to online experiences in digital transformation, there are a lot of opportunities in enhancing the in-store experience in brick-n-mortar stores.

Google has published some interesting stats on the use of smartphones within stores here - https://ssl.gstatic.com/think/docs/mobile-in-store_infographics.pdf

Some interesting stats:

  1. 84% of customers use their mobile phone in stores to help them shop. 
  2. Customers spend an average of 15 mins using their smartphones inside stores.
  3. Customers use their smartphones for searching for products/services - 82% use a Search Engine, 62% use Store website, 50% use Brand website. 
Thus mobile has the power to transform the shopping experience in stores. Also beacons can be utilized to provide location context sensitive promotions to customers. 

SweetIQ has put up a neat infographic that illustrates how beacons can be used to enhance the in-store digital experience. 

Friday, October 09, 2015

Managing Database Versions in an Agile Project

Today we have a robust set of tools for code versioning, CI and release management - for e.g. Java, .NET, Ruby web or REST applications. Examples of tools are Github, Hudson, Jetkins, etc.

But what about the RDBMS? How do we manage it across the various environments - i.e. from development to integration to UAT to production. A good illustration of the typical challenges is given here.

Flyway is a tool to address these problems. Using simple techniques such as a schema-version table and automatically apply db scripts (that follow a naming convention for sequence tracking), the tool can help any Agile project in managing RDBMS instances across different environments. It would also be a nifty addition to your existing DevOps tools. 

Sunday, October 04, 2015

Service Discovery Mechanisms in Microservices

In a microservices based architecture, we would not know the number of instances of a server or their IP addresses beforehand. This is because microservices typically run in VMs or Docker containers that are dynamically spawned based on usage load.

So consumers would need some kind of service discovery mechanism to communicate with microservices. There are two options to design this -

a) Server-side Service Discovery - Here the consumers make a request to a load-balancer/service registry and then the request is routed to the actual service end-point. This paradigm is clearly explained on this blog here. Examples of this design pattern is the AWS Elastic Load Balancer.

b) Client-side Service Discovery - Here the consumers use a small library for making service calls. This library makes calls to the service registry and obtains the load-balanced actual service end-point. Netflix uses this approach and its service registry is called Eureka and its client library is called Ribbon.

Saturday, October 03, 2015

Handling failures and improving resilience in microservices

In a microservices architecture, one has to build services that can handle failures. For e.g. If a microservice calls another dependent microservice that is down, then we need to handle this using timeouts and implement the Circuit Breaker pattern.

Netflix has open-sourced an incredibly useful library called as Hystrix to solve such problems. Anyone building large scale distributed architectures on the Java platform would find Hystrix a boon. When you make a remote service call through Hystrix libraries, it does the following:

  1. If the remote service call does not return within a specified threshold, Hystrix times-out the call.
  2. If a service is throwing errors and the number of errors exceed a threshold, then Hystrix would trip the circuit-breaker and all requests would fail-fast for a specified amount of time (recovery period)
  3. Hystrix enables developers to implement a fall-back action when a request fails, for e,g returning a default value or a null value or from cache. 
The full operating model of Hystrix is explained in great details on Github wiki 

It was also interesting to learn that the tech guys at Flipkart have taken Hystrix and implemented a service proxy on top of it called 'Phantom'. Looks like the advantage of using Phantom is that your consumers do not have to code against the Hystrix libraries. 

Ruminating on SemVer

Semantic Versioning (aka SemVer) of components has become mainstream today. The official page laying out the guidelines is available here - http://semver.org/

Following SemVer, each component has a 3 digit version in the format of 'Major.Minor.Patch' - for e.g. 2.3.23
  • You increment the major version, when you make incompatible changes. 
  • You increment the minor version, when you make changes but those changes are backward compatible.
  • The patch digit is incremented when you just make a bug-fix and it is obviously backward compatible.
  • With SemVer, pre-releases can be defined by appending a hyphen and the word 'alpha/beta' after it. For e.g. a pre-release for version 3.0.0 could be 3.0.0-alpha.1. 
Following SemVer is a boon in managing dependencies between components. So if component A is using version 4.2.3 of component B, then you know that as long as version B does not become 5.x.y, there would be no breaking changes. You can specify dependencies in the manifest file of a component.

While using SemVer for software components is fine, does it make sense to have the x.y.z version in the URL of public APIs?
APIs are the interfaces you expose to your consumers. Do your consumers really need to know about the bug fixes you have made? or the new features you have added? Maybe yes or no !
IMHO, just using a single version number in your API URL would suffice majority of real life business usecases. For e.g. https://api.company.com/v1/customer.

A good blog post by APIGEE on API versioning is available here. As stated in the blog - "Never release an API without a version and make the version mandatory."