Recently while working on BEA Tuxedo server, I came across the term 'ATMI' - Application to Transaction Monitor Interface. I beleive Tux was quite a popular product for handling large number of transactions in a distributed environment - right from the early days when most business critical applications were written in Cobol.
ATMI is a procedural, non object oriented API that you use to write stateless services to manage transactions. This API is developed by the OpenGroup and forms the core service API of Tuxedo. The Application-Transaction Monitor Interface (ATMI) provides the interface between the COBOL application and the transaction processing system. This interface is known as ATMI and these pages specify its COBOL language binding. It provides routines to open and close resources, manage transactions, manage record types, and invoke request/response and conversational service calls.
But I believe today's TP monitors are based on Corba OTS (Object Transaction service) semantics. Corba OTS is used by any OO application as the underlying semantics for communications with resouce managers in a distributed transaction. Even JTS is the Java langauge mapping of Corba OTS. A JTS transaction manager implements the Java mappings of the CORBA OTS 1.1 specification, specifically, the Java packages org.omg.CosTransactions and org.omg.CosTSPortability. A JTS transaction manager can propagate transaction contexts to another JTS transaction manager via IIOP.